Circumcising one’s penis makes it easier to keep clean and smell free, and may reduce risk factors for certain medical conditions like urinary tract infections and phimosis.
Circumcision appears to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea and herpes simplex infections in female sexual partners. Three studies suggest Circumcision Melbourne may even lower HIV infection risks.
Reduced Risk of STIs
Studies have demonstrated that circumcision significantly lowers men’s risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, and human papillomavirus. While other forms of STIs like gonorrhoea or chlamydia might also benefit, circumcision does not have an equal impact.
According to the Rakai study, circumcised men were 45-60% less likely than their uncircumcised counterparts to visit a hospital for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. This finding also held true for their partners sexually involved with these men.
However, circumcision’s effect on sexually transmitted infections varies across studies due to differences in their methods and characteristics of those affected by them. Four incidence and twenty prevalence studies have examined this relationship.
Two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from Uganda and South Africa showed that circumcision reduced HSV infections by up to one-third, both in the penile shaft and glans. A larger, more recent study from Australia and New Zealand did not discover such an association between circumcision and HPV rates among men who were circumcised or intact.
Reduced Risk of Cancer of the Penis
Circumcised penises can be easier to keep clean and odour-free, helping reduce infections in settings where HIV or STI infections are prevalent, helping reduce UTI risk as well as diseases like phimosis or smegma buildup which increase infection risks and can lead to various health complications. This can be particularly important in HIV/STI-endemic areas.
Circumcision has been shown in several studies to protect against both invasive penile cancer, which spreads beyond its initial source, and in situ penile cancer, which occurs only within its area of origin. Unfortunately, however, these results don’t always apply to men outside Africa.
Circumcision can also help prevent or treat conditions like balanitis and phimosis, which involve inflammation of the foreskin and blockage of the penis, respectively. Healthcare providers use different techniques to remove affected skin such as laser ablation (using extreme heat to destroy tissue), cryotherapy (which uses extreme cold) or Mohs surgery (where healthcare providers remove small sections until healthy tissue has been found), among others. Furthermore, radiation therapy may also be employed prior to surgery in order to kill cancerous cells or shrink tumors prior to going under anesthesia.
Reduced Risk of Urinary Tract Infections
Circumcision may provide some limited protection from urinary tract infections (UTIs), according to results of small, non-randomized clinical trials1.1
Babies born prematurely are at greater risk for UTIs due to immature immune systems that are less capable of protecting them against infections2.2
Babies who have been circumcised also face less risk of meatal stenosis, or narrowing of the penis at its end, which increases UTI risks substantially.
Circumcision can also prevent balanitis, in which the foreskin becomes too tight to retract over the glans and pull away easily from it. Treatment includes corticosteroid ointment or gel, antibiotic creams or corticosteroid injections; keeping your penis clean after circumcision becomes much simpler!
Reduced Risk of HIV
Men who have undergone circumcision are protected against HIV infection due to keratin, the tough structural protein found in hair and fingernails, which forms a thick barrier against its entry. This keratin layer prevents viruses from invading the skin and spreading throughout their bloodstream and other bodily tissues.
Researchers found in three RCTs tracking newly acquired infections, researchers discovered circumcision was linked with a 55%-67% reduction in HIV infection. Furthermore, the National Institutes of Health recently suspended another clinical trial conducted by Ugandan and Johns Hopkins University investigators after its Data Safety Monitoring Board reviewed preliminary results and concluded it significantly reduces transmission rates of HIV.
These findings are especially significant in lower- and middle-income countries where most men who contract AIDS through sexual transmission. Yet circumcision does not appear to reduce risks such as Hepatitis B or Chlamydia infection.